Diabetes mellitus, or simply: diabetes, is a metabolic disease in which a person has high blood sugar level. There are two main types of  type 1 diabetes, also referred to as juvenile diabetes, which usually begins during childhood or adolescence. It is caused by autoimmune damage of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas which are no longer able to produce insulin. In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease, the body forms antibodies against the insulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas. Usually, type 2 diabetes affects the elderly. It results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells do no longer respond to the insulin that is produced.

Autoantibodies against insulin (anti-Insulin) can appear in the prediabetic phase of type 1 diabetes or upon its manifestation. In rare cases, insulin-dependent diabetes patients generate antibodies against exogeneous insulin. This may lead to insulin resistance and should therefore be monitored regularly.

Several laboratory tests may be used to monitor diabetes on a regular basis. To monitor glucose control: Glucose, Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). To monitor kidney function: creatinine, creatinine clearance, microalbuminuria.



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